Norwalk Creek is an example of a small perennial basin in north-central U.S.A. The 1:24,000 scale topographic map (Norwalk) illustrates the general surface configuration. Because of similar areas in other basins, this one was chosen for long term observation as part of the Vigil Network.
This 4.92 square mile area is located about 4 miles southeast of Norwalk (see station description).
Soil.- The upland soils, constituting nearly 90 percent of the area, have developed from moderately calcareous clay loam to silty clay till of Wisconsin Age. They include the light colored, moderately well drained, slowly permeable Ellsworth; the light colored, somewhat poorly drained, very slowly permeable Mahoning; the light gray colored, poorly drained, very slowly permeable Trumbull and the dark colored, very poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable Marengo. Fine textured subsoils and below average yields are characteristics of these soils.
First bottom soils consist of the brown, well drained, permeable Chagrin; the light colored, moderately well drained Lobdell with moderately slow permeability and the light gray colored, poorly drained, very slowly permeable, fine textured Wayland.
The upland soils, although leached in the upper soil layers, are not deeply weathered. Mahoning and Trumbull soils dominate the area.
Vegetation.- About 10% wood lots, 10% permanent pasture and 80% rotation crops.
Underlying rocks.- Sandstones and shales of Mississippian age are covered with heavy, thin glacial till.
Drains.- Pasture and crop areas drained by use of tile drains.
Farm ponds or small detention reservoirs.- None,
Logging areas.- Area deforested over 100 years ago. Present logging operations consist of routine cutting in farm wood lots.
Conversion of pasture to woodland, etc.- There may be minor rotation between pasture and tilled lands, but most of the changes consist of rotation of crops on the tilled lands.
Estimate of probable changes in land use 20 years ahead.- It is probable that land use will remain about the same except for possible variation of crop rotation. It is possible, but not probable, that suburban development will take place in the basin. Probable changes are improved land use practices, including improved drainage.
The annual peak discharge in cfs and associated elevation and maximum depth of water are the only hydrologic data that have been observed at this site. The file of original field data are as follows:
1. Station description.
2. Index card.
3. Black and white picture.
4. Topographic map (1:24,000).
5. Annual-peak discharges.
6. Physical description of site.
Base data are on file at.- U.S. Geological Survey, 975 West Third Avenue, Columbus, Ohio, 43212, USA.
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